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Ethics and Charter of Scientific Research

Ethics and Charter of Scientific Research

 

Introduction:

The scientific progress in science requires values ​​and ethics in the form of a charter and a guide to be a reference, and a basis for the faculty staff members to be honest with one's conclusion. Indeed, this is one of the inevitable necessities required for the success of university's   institutions. While, as brilliant scientists cannot do without several ethics and values of which are: credibility, ethics and honesty; due to being the base of success, and as the scientific success is the base of the progress of nations, it has been clearly established that hardworking, transparency, credibility and good morals are exactly what our nation needs from all of the creative scientists.

The scientific research is one of the most important duties assigned to the universities through scientific departments, research centers and specialized laboratories. Besides, in addition to their role in the rehabilitation of scientific cadres for the advancement of society, universities are -also- concerned with diagnosing the points of imbalances and causes of problems, and thus developing ways and plans to study them and find successful solutions for them.

As the scientific research develops over years, it has become a common practice, ethics, ritual and methodology that the researchers follow, develop, and establish until being part of their personal ethics and behaviors, noting that ignoring them will be considered as a fatal mistake.

This is compounded by the width of scientific research and the fields that science has never covered before. What society had previously considered as science fiction is now within reach, and thus, society has to deal with it through new values ​​and controls.

The globalism of scientific research has liberated science from any geographical boundaries, and globalism has become a landmark of modern scientific research. As many scientists from different countries participate in the same scientific research, combining efforts, shortening time, and assessing outcomes according to the different circumstances of societies. The Globalism of scientific research requires one agreement or a minimum agreement on the disciplines and values ​​governing the scientific research throughout several countries. Scientific research is no longer an individual field of scholarly endeavor, but it has become the investment of the society that is expected to be beneficial and profitable, whether material or human development for the preparation of cadres capable of performing such scientific research.  The community has become the beneficiary from scientific research, and it has become a duty to play a positive role in directing scientific research to what serves its interests and to what consists with its values, and develop the proper controls.

Scholars have made it clear that every science has its own ethics and rules, therefore, if Islam has sublimed the values ​​of humanity through the preservation of all the qualities promised, the primary ethic shall be that of the scholars' sense of responsibility towards this humanity while refraining from destroying what God has built.

It is also worth noting that, the access to the truth through scientific research is not an easy or simple mission, because the conflict of knowledge production and the preservation of the freedoms of individuals are major struggles requiring balance between the two sides without affecting each other. This is especially important if we know that scientific research is based on the values ​​and ethics that researchers should be committed to and responsible when conducting any scientific research.

If a scientific researcher ignores its ethics, s/he will – then - destroy the scientific and moral value of his / her research work. It is essential that the researcher keeps the privacy, dignity or approach of his/her colleagues. Moreover, it has been well-established that the politicization of the research process is contrary to the ethics of scientific research.


 

Concepts and Ethics of Scientific Research

Firstly: What is Scientific Research?

Scientific research is defined as:

·      Procedural behavior conscious of the miscellaneous process of planning and implementation to obtain the desired results.

·      It is a systematic human behavior aimed at investigating the accuracy of the information, hypothesis or explanation of the situation or phenomenon and understanding the causes and setting the proper mechanisms required for addressing them, or finding a successful solution to a specific problem or social behavior that concerns the individual and society.

·      The research process is performed by the researcher in order to investigate the facts that are related to a particular problem called (the subject of the research) through following a systemic scientific method called (the research methodology), for the purpose of finding the suitable solutions for treatment or for reaching the results that are known to be valid for the process of the assimilation of similar problems called (the research results).

Secondly: What is ethics?

Definition of " Ethical commitment":-

"The teacher's awareness of the size and type of consequences of his actions to create the moral environment suitable for the moral obligation and its development, both at the levels of individual or group".

Definition of Ethics:-

"What you should do, and more specifically know to determine what the correct action is and what the wrong action is".


 

Definition of Ethics of Profession:-

"Is a set of formal and informal standards of behavior used by the faculty staff members to guide their behavior in the course of their performance and used by the administration and the community to judge their commitment".

Sources of Ethical principles:-

Ethical sources are derived from two main sources:

First Source:-

The basic human values ​​deduced from the heavenly religions.

Second Source:-

The prevailing culture in society and what others do, and what a faculty staff member sees in the behavior of others (especially those who have authority and power) will undoubtedly be a yardstick for judging possible or rejected behavioral alternatives.

The Importance of " Ethical commitment":-

·      The commitment of faculty staff members to follow ethics in their work contributes positively to the advancement of the scientific level, as justice prevails and members enjoy equal opportunity, and decreases unfair practices, especially in terms of promotion procedures, incentives and rewards, etc.…..

·      The commitment of all to the ethics of work contributes to the creation of an environment suitable for fair competition among the members of the faculty in terms of scientific research, and increases their scientific production of books and scientific references, the effected of which is reflected with improvement of the scientific level of students (as outputs), and offers opportunities to excel and gain the advantage of competition by graduating outstanding students needed by the requirements of the labor market, enjoy the moral decency and scientific qualifications, and adhere to the charters of ethics, both at the regional or global level.

·      The application of the mechanisms of control and ethics of the moral charter supports the sense of satisfaction and credibility in the integrity and transparent management and academic leadership, contributes to the creation of self-confidence among everyone, and the emergence of an atmosphere of stability and conviction as long as justice and law are fulfilled in all transactions; as ethics is  known to be as a necessity of civilized life and a prerequisite for the organization of the university community and especially in Scientific Research.

Why do we care for ethics in the university?

The university is deemed as a moral organization due to its concern with the scientific and moral construction of the students. It is unreasonable for the university to succeed in graduating cadres and conducting researches without the moral and positive behavior of its professors and students.

Therefore, we find that the interest in ethics on campus contributes to:

·      Improving the university community as a whole.

·      A common sense of social satisfaction.

·      The ethics of efficient work gives both the professors and the students confidence.

·      The moral commitment of the university safeguards it against great risks.

·      Commitment to work ethics supports a number of other programs such as (Comprehensive Quality Assurance Programs, Strategic Planning Programs, and Human Development Program).

·      Commitment to strict ethical conventions leads the dealers to deal with those committed to ethical. Because, good practice expels bad practice from the field of work.

·      Adhering to ethics in the university creates a suitable environment for teamwork, which increases motivation for progress and advancement in the field of scientific research.

·      Faculties' keenness on the existence of an ethical charter is a guide for everyone when there are differences about a certain behavior.

The Agreed Four Ethical Principles in Scientific Research:

There are four main ethical principles that must be followed when conducting scientific research:

1.    Respect for independent individuals and protection for those who are unable to achieve independence themselves.

2.    The benefit which includes the duty of good.

3.    Refrain from causing harm, or a commitment not to harm.

4.    Justice - which is the last principle- is what law claims to achieve in the first place, however, law has been used - historically and in modern times- not only for the protection of justice, but to protect the respect for individuals and prevent the occurrence of harm as well.

The Ethical Controls in the Implementation of Scientific Research:

The process of scientific research passes through several stages prior to turning the research form the ideas' phase to the publishing and implementation phase, and these steps are:

1.    Selection of the research topic.

2.    Evaluation of scientific research.

3.    Implementation the search.

4.    Approval the research, dissemination of its information, and applying its results in the practical application.

In all these steps, the ethical aspects of scientific research must be followed. Nevertheless, it is not enough to follow the ethical rules in a stage of scientific research and neglect them in another one. Otherwise, the research becomes unethical. The research might be designed ethically, but when being implemented, it may not follow the controls that were developed when being designed. In such cases, the research becomes unethical. Moreover, the ethical research in its idea, design and implementation may become unethical if the researcher does not follow the ethical controls when publishing the research report, and uses its findings in the practical application.

There are several mistakes could be made by the researcher during the various stages of scientific research procedures:

Firstly: Selection of Research Problem:

·      The random selection of the topic of the scientific research or the problem of research, once it crosses the researcher's mind, or recommended for  the researcher without taking into consideration its consistency with the researcher's potentials and future ambitions, may lead to conduct researches that are of no scientific value. The researcher should review several scientific journals, internet, bulletins and periodicals in his/her field of specialization so that s/he can reach a research idea that does not conflict with the ethical, cultural and religious values ​​of the society, while deepening his/her review of the intellectual heritage of the topic.

·      The selection of an unmeasured hypothesis or questions, leads to intentional / unintentional omission of an important factor or aspect of the research.

·      The leniency in developing a possible plan results; causing the loss of an organized tool directed to the responsibilities scheduled to reach for the desired solutions to the problem of research.

Second: Mistakes of Reviewing Previous Studies and Research (related to the topic):

·      Fast review of the previous studies and researches, may lead the researcher to skip important information related to the research results, or to perform a research for a problem that has been already studied. 

·      Non-conduct of adequate studies by reviewing more relevant research, reliance on secondary resources significantly, or just research abstracts.

·      Focus on the results of the previously conducted studies without understanding their methodologies, measurements and styles of data processing, which may lead the researcher to lose some information, or ideas addressing the tools, procedures and methods of his / her research.

·      Lack of accuracy or error in writing the names of researchers who have prepared previous studies and researches, or omission of the years of preparation, noting that such kind mistakes is included in the ethics of scientific research, as the researcher should not extract any idea or result without referring to the reference from which it has been quoted or extracted in order to confirm its credibility.

Thirdly: Methodological Errors:-

·      The leniency in proposing an integrated methodology that takes into consideration all the steps of the scientific research and the requirements of Implementation, tools, measurements, statistical processing and results interpretation, (which may lead to the slow completion of the research and confusion of its operations or deviation from the objective for which it is conducted).

·      Negligence in providing an accurate characterization of research topics, which leads to selecting samples and data that do not fully represent the problem of research.

·      Usage of a small number of research samples, which gives data of no scientific or practical values in general.

·      Usage of tools, measurements, and methods that are not suitable for the sample of the research, in addition to the researcher's lack of knowledge about the methods of utilization of the tools of measurement, which leads to inaccurate results.


 

Fourthly: Data Collection Mistakes:-

·      The lack of harmony among the researcher and the members of the samples' individuals, may directly affect the validity of the procedures followed for the implementation of the research, performance of the necessary measurements, and the process  of  obtaining true and accurate data.

·      The researcher may seek to modify his/her research environment or search factors in order to facilitate obtaining the required data, thus distorting the nature of the occurrence of the results in the form that the research basically intended.

·      The usage of tools that are not valid for measurement, which gives wrong results or the usage of tools that cannot be operated by the researcher in the right way because of lack of any scientific or functional efficiency, thus, the results that have been reached for will be inaccurate due to their non- correspondence to the ethics of scientific research.

Fifthly: Statistical Analysis Mistakes:

·      Only reporting facts without merging them together, in addition to formulating illogical conclusions.

·      Illogical and incomplete interpretation of the results, or as per the personal desire of the researcher, leading to the loss of the credibility of the research in achieving the goal for which the it was conducted.

Sixthly: Mistakes in Presenting and Interpreting Research Results:

·      Researcher's negligence in collecting ideas, data, and remarks that are available during the implementation of the procedures of the research, leading him/her to lose them all. Thus, their urgent need will become clearer during the presentation and interpretation of the search results.

·      The research must be ethical in its design and the interpretation of its results, (The number of the samples shall be sufficient for reaching  accurate results to be statistically processed, selecting  accurate tools and devices,  and writing scientific references with a great deal credibility ... etc.). Moreover, no unjustifiable results are to be accepted.

·      Presentation of a paragraph or a chapter of the previously conducted studies and researches in dispersed formats and sentences, adding to providing information that happens to be of  importance at times without combining them together in a logical and useful manner related to the subject of the research.

·      The frequent use of literal quote without mentioning the real author, to whom the quoted information is attributed, in contradiction to the intellectual property rights, may subject the researcher to legal liability.

·      Usage of inaccurate and incoherent phrases, sentences and paragraphs when interpreting and analyzing the research results or extracting appropriate results or negligence in writing the scientific references and omitting one of the authors, contradicting the scientific research ethics.

·      Wholly or partially omission of one or more descriptions related to research, as can be observed during the presentation of the research problem, objectives, questions and hypothesis, or when writing the research methodology scientifically and statistically or analyzing and interpreting the collected data, and extracting appropriate conclusions or defining the research expressions.

Seventhly :Mistakes in Research Evaluation:-

·      The lack of any well-considered criteria for judging the research.

·      Evaluating the research through non-specialists in the field of specialization.

·      Subjecting the research evaluation to personal desires and courtesies.

Responsibility of the Commitment to the Ethics and Regulations of the Scientific Research

Firstly: - The Scientific Researcher:

The researcher has full responsibility of his / her research, so, s/he should be well trained to have a sense of ethical research guidelines.

 

 

Secondly: -The Scientific Research Institutions:

The Scientific research institution is responsible for the ethical aspects of research; it should review all the planned researches, accept or decline them depending on ethical basis through the competent Ethics Committees, and provide guidance and advice for researchers who are conducting researches. These committees should be completely independent from the researchers through Ethics Committees prior to conducting any research.

Thirdly: Scientific Journal's Editors:

Any research that does not meet the research ethics must not be accepted or even published, and the scientific report must be approved by the Ethics Committee of the University.

Fourthly: Funding Agencies and Organizations:

Scientific researches shouldn't be funded by any international or national agency unless it clearly provides the ethical aspects of the research; guarantees the proper control of the ethical principles of the research and obtains the prior approval of the Ethics Committees.

Ethics of the Scientific Researcher:

Researchers and scientists or scholars shall be entrusted to his/her knowledge which is a gift from God to benefit people not to benefit him/he in person, and this entails many responsibilities. The researcher should conduct researches to achieve a certain objective for the purpose of benefiting people; otherwise the research becomes futile in case of being conducted for research purposes only or for scientific luxury, and this is considered to be a waste of resources. Thus, the researcher should be honest while extracting or quoting from others, and never underestimates the searches conducted by other researchers in the same field of specialization. Also, his/her critical analysis should be honest and objective when auditing the other researchers' scientific efforts, while refraining from showing any disgrace and derogation.
               The researcher also should be honest regarding the mechanisms of the research on top of which are: questionnaires or data collection to statistical processing or any other processes s/he has conducted to present and interpret the findings that have been reached. The researcher should be subjective and not to be biased to his/her personal preferences through research' stages, because those findings might be taken into consideration by others to make decisions or achieve assignments related to other's lives. Consequently, others will assume the responsibility for these mistakes.
               Moreover, financial objectives should not be the reason for the scientific research; rather, it will be no harm, if the distinguished scientific efforts are financially rewarded by the university or the institutions sponsoring the research.
               The conditions that all faculties are going through motivate us to commit to ethics and methods of the scientific research, because we are in need for the findings of that research. Moreover, the tough conditions within which the research was conducted shall never be considered as an excuse for ignoring ethics and methods of good scientific research, as when the research is approved, published and read by the other future generations of researchers, this will never mean that the research was published or even accomplished in hard conditions but it will be subjected to assessment, correction and criticism without taking those excuses into consideration. Also, promotions should not be one of the scientific research's objectives, as when the researcher is conducting a research just for the purpose of getting promoted, s/he will deviate from the scientific research's objectives, adding to being out of the context of the scientific research. So, researchers have to forget about the promotion matter and focus only on community service through their scientific research efforts, then and as a result, they will be granted an honorary scientific promotion.
               Ethics of scientific researchers require respect for others' rights, opinions and dignity, whether they are researchers or participants or targeted by the research. The principals of scientific research's ethics adopt the following values "positive work" and "avoidance of harm". These values should be the pillars of ethical consideration during the search process.
There are some considerations regarding the ethical behavior of the scientific researcher as following:
 
Firstly: credibility:
               The findings of the research should be quoted accurately and the researcher has to be honest regarding whatever s/he quotes without attempting to convey or quote any incomplete information depending on what s/he thinks. Also, such researcher should not attempt to add any data depending on the findings of theories.
Secondly: Experience:
               The work conducted by the researcher should be adequate to his/her experience and training, field work preparations, since the competent researcher should accurately understand the theories prior to the application of the concepts or procedures. 
Thirdly: Safety:
               The researcher should not expose himself/herself to any physical or ethical risks; this could be done through the consideration of the precautionary procedures when conducting experiments. Also, s/he should not expose research samples' individuals to any physical or psychological hazards or risks through the application of the research procedures.
Fourthly: Trust:
               The researcher should gain the mutual trust and confidence between him/her and samples' individuals whom s/he is dealing with in order to ensure their constant cooperation until completing the research procedures.
Fifthly: Approval:
               The researcher has to obtain the prior necessary approvals of the sample's individuals to voluntary participate in performing the research procedures. Besides, should the sample's individuals be off the legal age; the competent researcher has to have their parents' approval to participate in implementing the research procedures.
Sixthly: Withdrawal:
               Any member of the sample's individuals has the right to withdraw from continuing the implementation of the research procedures for his / her own personal reasons, and in such case, the researcher has to deal with great respect, putting this case into his/her consideration as of the beginning.
Seventhly: Digital Recording:
               The researcher should not record any voices or take pictures or videos' shots unless s/he has already obtained the prior approval of sample's individuals before commencing the recording process, because this action completely violates the ethics of research.
Eighthly: Feedback:
               The researcher has to feedback sample's individuals or research targeted persons with the full findings, and in case s/he was incapable of doing so, it would be enough to provide them with the abstracts or the most important recommendations. In addition , the scientific honesty obligates the researcher to present them pictures, voices and printed texts of the phrases they have previously mentioned prior to publishing the research for avoidance of any physical or psychological harm.
Ninthly : Fake Hope / Lying:
               The researcher should not make the sample's individuals believe that things are going to change as a result of their participation in the search. Also, s/he should not make any promises that may not be fulfilled or breached.
Tenthly: Consideration of Others' Feelings:
               The researcher may deal with some of sample's individuals who are most likely to have the feelings of defeatism or surrender due to age factor or being ill or being unable to understand or express these feelings. Therefore, in such case, the researcher has to take their feelings into consideration and have sympathy on them.
Eleventh: Exploitation of the Situation:
               The researcher should not take advantage of or exploit his/her research, so that, s/he does not interpret what has been observed during the application of the research according to the personal preferences and does not favor the achievement of his/her duties according to the personal desires and tendencies. 
Twelfth: Confidentiality:
               One of the most important aspects of the ethics of the scientific researcher is the protection of the identity of sample's individuals of the research during the implementation of the research procedures. The scientific honesty and ethics that the researcher should have obligate him/her to keep their names as confidential in addition to refraining from revealing their real identities through transferring their names into numbers or codes.
 Ethics and Values of the Scientific Research:
               The scientific research in general is an activity dedicated to humanity interest, alongside with being an effective tool for achieving humanity progress, and the basis on which the scientific research institution depends and considers as an essential factor that formulates the intellectual wealth of minds which increases work productivity and capital having a great impact on the services and commodities that have been served and provided by both the whole country and the private sector. This cannot be achieved unless in case of the availability of the pillars of ethics and controls of the scientific research which everyone is committed to.
Principals, Ethics, Potentials and Competences that Characterize the Scientific Researcher.
1-Competences of the Scientific Researcher:
It is the scientific researcher's insight that allows him/her to distinguish problems, set strategies, and comprehend the finding expected to solve these problems. It formulates a basis for the researcher's behavior, a general framework for his/her identity, and the comprehension processes s/he implements as a researcher.
2-Logical Competences of the Scientific Researcher:
It is parallel to being aware about a problem or research topic and setting reports about the ways of processing it based on logical and convincing basis. Namely; what seems to the researcher actually as individual potentials that enable him/her to reveal the nature of the problem, analyze its conditions and different factors, and determine the extent to which it is needed to be solved. As a result, s/he will decide whether to proceed the implementation of the research or suspend it for lack of need or being of lower importance.  
3-Planning Competences of the Scientific Researcher:
It is the researcher's ability to analyze all available resources to study the problem, and develop adequate plans to solve it, namely the researcher's abilities to legislate methods to deal with the problem and defining the type of the targeted findings while considering them as successful solutions.
4-Preocdural Competences of the Scientific Researcher:
It means the researcher's  ability to implement the plans pre- set to study and analyze the problem including the process of search management, data collection, analysis and interpretation of the findings to achieve the desired and adequate solutions.
5- Professional and Evaluative Competences of the Scientific Researcher: 
They are the competences that characterize the findings and controls of the Scientific Research. These competences can – also- be defined as, the researcher's ability to review and audit all what s/he has done, and filter his/her activities and findings, to confirm their validity for solving the problem and their effectiveness to overcome the commonly observed negativity, and -then- drafting the findings and the adequate reports necessary for publishing the research or for being used by the concerned parties.
In order to achieve the objectives of the scientific research, the scientific researcher shall fulfill the following requirements:
·      S/ he should have faith that his / her work is dedicated for God' sake and to serve individuals of the society.
·      His / Her ethics and ideology that control and direct his / her work.
·       S/he shall have good experience that enables him /her to plan, implement and generalize the findings of the research in the light of the scientific research's ethics commitment.
·      Avoidance of any kind of selfishness and personal preferences which may- sometimes-  negatively affect the humanity's interests in order to achieve a noble objective represented in the new findings with scientific or applied value that contributes in human civilization.
·      S / he should enjoy personal courage necessary for achieving the targeted results and fulfill the responsibility for applying these results without any hesitancy or delay in announcing them.
Values and Ethics of the Scientific Research regarding the following:
·      Firstly   :   Ethical problems pertaining to the samples' individual.
·      Secondly:  Ethical Problems pertaining  to the beneficiaries or the 
                           competent governmental authorities.
                    
·      Thirdly: Post- Research Ethics.
 
Firstly : Ethical problems pertaining to samples' individuals:
It is necessary for each researcher to achieve balance between research's benefits and their consequences (the benefits), alongside with discussing these consequences prior to conducting the research. Should the ethical consequence happen to be greater than targeted results, the researcher has to solve this issue and suspend the implementation of the procedures of the research.
1-    The Free participation in research procedures:
It means voluntary pressure –free participation of the samples' individuals in the implementation of the procedures of the research; nevertheless, this will in a way - lead the researcher to face a problem that is to be solved through achieving balance between the targeted \ research results and the ethical consequences of these results.
2-Self-determination Right:
It is the belief that individuals have the freedom to make decision on their own free will. Besides, when the researcher contributed to alter the participant's behavior, s/he, this will be considered as a breach to the principal of the self-determination right. 
It might be said that an individual is unable to make his/her own decision, because s/he is not qualified with the necessary knowledge and information. So, the researcher has to refer to or consult whoever has the capability of making these decisions on his/her behalf.
3-Physical and Psychological Harm:
It means the intentional harm that the samples' individual might expose to or incur, or it may refer to the physical or psychological harm pre-schemed by the researcher, as if to face an embarrassing situation that causes stress or failure or even underestimation. 
4-  Non-Disclosure of the Real Research Objectives':
Some participants -actually – know that their cases are to be studied through their participation in the research, but they – at the same time – are not aware of the real objectives of the research, yet  they only knew part of this reality of these objectives without having full and accurate information about the mentioned objectives, or might be provided with non-true information in contradiction to the individual's rights and dignity. 
 
 
 
5-4-Delusion of the Participants and Non-Disclosure of the Real Experience s / he will go through:
It means the researcher's attempts to non-disclose the real objectives of the research and the experiences the participants are to pass through, it also occurs when the researcher deludes those participants claiming that everything is normal. Basically, it is the pre-set schemes that lead the researcher to recourse to lies, bribes, and other illicit and non-ethical behaviors. Some of the researchers assume that delusion may be deemed as a legal method to be utilized in the development of the human behavior development, which – indeed- a breach of the freedom of the participants, thus the researcher is obliged to inform the participants about the reasons for this nob-disclosure upon the completion of the research.  
Secondly: The Ethical Problems Pertaining to the Beneficiaries and Governmental Authorities:
Most of the researchers perpetrate some of the negative ethical activities which turn the researches to be of lower quality. In addition, some of these negative ethical activities lead the beneficiaries to make wrong decisions due to inaccuracy of the research. These issues are pertaining to the processes of quoting, data collection and analysis, and the publication of the research as following:
1-Scientific Plagiarism:
Some researcher may quote some paragraphs from Arabic or foreign references and attribute these phrases and quotes to themselves, this – indeed- are in non-consistency with the entire intellectual property rights. The researcher has to document whatever s/he is quoting from others in accordance with the scientific and methodological ways that exempts him/her from any legal liability, even if s/he has quoted from his/her own books or previously conducted studies, without underestimating others' rights, and commit to scientific research ethics, because lack of documentation is considered as a plagiarism that its perpetrator shall be punished for. 
2-Points of Default in the Research:
The researcher has to clearly mention all the defaults points that are happened to ascertain in his/her research; this will strengthen the value of the research. Defaults in behavioral scenes and social sciences can take place due to variables measurements or the methodology of data collection or analysis….etc.
 
 
3-Negative Findings:
There is a wrong belief that negative findings are not worth mentioning similarly to the positive ones, and therefore, some researchers tend to ignore the documentation of the negative findings due to their non- relevance to the variables of the study. The right thing is the that lack of relevance between the variables shall not be deemed as less important than being relevant to one another, because both findings are useful to society and the academic authority as well.
4-Findings:
Some of researchers reach for the research findings accidently, however, they mention that those finding were targeted to be reached for. Most of the researchers –then - do not formulate their hypotheses unless they complete the data analysis and extraction process, however; as per the ethics of the scientific research, questions or hypotheses formulation should be completed prior to the commencement of the data collection and analysis process.
Thirdly: Post-Research Ethics:
There are several ethical considerations that the researcher should commit to after completing his/her research, especially in case of perpetrating any of the unethical activities against the samples' individual who are participating at the research procedures. The research has to clarify the following points to those participants:
1.    The nature of the research, its importance, and scientific value to the society.
2.    The importance of their contributions in the research and the value of the information they provide to the society.
3.    Disclosure and misleading aspects that have been ascertained.
4.    Excuses that lead him/her to perpetrate unethical activities.
5.    Apology for any harassment caused by the researcher or due to their contributions in the research.
6.    Preservation of the confidentiality of information and identities of the participating samples' individuals, while refraining from exploiting the said information for non-scientific purposes, or disclosing the personalities of the participating parties no matter what  the reasons are.
The researcher has to confirm the non-existence of any defaults when analyzing or publishing the findings, otherwise the research will – then - contradict the research ethics. When the researcher follow incorrect or inadequate methods, or present findings in a complex or exaggerated way, this may lead to waste the money, effort and time of  those who might use these finding later on.
Mechanisms of Controlling the Scientific Research Ethics:
·      Establishment of social education as being the basic mechanism for transferring the ethics of scientific research and culture of science in general.
·      Imposing strict penalties on the possible scientific deviations such as scientific plagiarism.
·      Setting strict controls for promotion systems applicable at the academic and scientific institution.
·      Setting controls for the scientific publications and working on improving the culture of scientific publishing.

 


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